By Peter B. Golden
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Additional info for An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East
A "second Urheimat" was established for the "European" branches of the Indo-Europeans by migrations through the Caucasus to the Ponto-Caspian steppes and extended from there into Central Asia. g. Tokharian). Ancient Indo-European loanwords in Uralic, Altaic and Kettic (cf. Kettic kus "mare" Lat. C. " He eschews the migrationist mode! based on the movement of bellicose nomads. 25 Thus, the chronology and geography of these events is by no means certain. , lndo-European unity gradually appears to have come to an end.
Later "Tung-hu" peoples such as the Hsi, Shih-wei and Ch'i-tan (Qitan/Oitaii) also appear to have spoken sorne form of Mongolie, usually termed, again, Proto-Mongolie. The documentation is extremely sparse and the Qitan writing system, based on a Chinese model, is far from fully elucidated. We shall have occasion to return to this subject. y replaced by Cyrillic in the USSR and MPR) is based on the Uygur alphabet which was ultimately of Syriac origin. MODERN MONGOUC Western Mongolie Oirat, spoken in Inner and Outer Mongolia and the closely related Kalmuk (which is derived from it) spoken in the Kalmyk ASSR,USSR by 146,631 speakers.
The Gagauz of the USSR (largely in the Moldavian SSR) : 173,179. 8% of the population of Iran (49,930,000 in 1987). In the USSR (Azerbaijan SSR) they number : 5,477,330. Türkmen are found in the Turkmen SSR in the USSR (2,027,913) and the adjoining region of Iran (330- 500,000? 5% of the population). They are also found in Afghanistan (270-400,000) with smaller groups in China, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. TIIE NOR1HWEST OR QIPéAQ GROUP Medieval : Old-Northwestem of the Middle Turkic Period: Quman/Qipcaq/Qangh Modem: PONTO-CASPIAN : Qaraim Qaracay, Balqar QmmTatar Qumuq VOLGA-KAMA-WEST SIBERIAN : Qazan Tatar (including Teptar, MiSiir, Qâsimov Tatar) West Siberian Tatar (including Tural1, Tobolh, ISnnh, Qûrdaq, Irtrsh) Baraba Küerik (transitional toto Central South Siberian Turkic) Ba5qurt (with isoglosses to Central South Siberian Turkic) ARALO-CASPIAN : Qazaq, Qara Qalpaq Q1pcaq Ôzbek dialects Nogay Qrrgu ("only insofar as certain features of the modem literary language are concemed," transitional from Central Asiatic).
An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East by Peter B. Golden