By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson
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Additional info for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)
Courting was behavior displayed when the dummy female was seen and before there was any reaction to the mirrors. Interaction was the reaction to the cock's mirror image. The exploratory phase was quantified by determining the speed of advance of the male toward the arena, and by noting the alterations in his song. Virtually all males, regardless of population, increased the volume of hooting when the female call was played. Also, the frequency of complete songs increased. There was high variation in the rate of advance; cocks at CC advanced slowest, those at CB most rapidly, and those at MQL with intermediate speed (Fig.
4. Top: Dispersal of founding males on Moresby Island. Several males shifted to the edge of the island. These males were usually aggressive and fought their mirror images. In 1971-72 a number of hens, mostly of MQ and CB stock, did not nest and dispersed to the south end of the island. Bottom: Several aggressive males shifted their territories inland in later years and were thus closer to females. 38 A. T. BERGERUD Fig. 5. Comparison of disperal distances, distance to nearest neighbor, and territory size among founding stocks.
Errington (1951) showed that fighting was greater in years of declining muskrat (Ondatra zibethicd) numbers. Mercer (1967) demonstrated more aggression as willow ptarmigan numbers declined. Watson (1964) showed that as red grouse became sparse they defended larger territories and were more aggressive. Theberge and Bendell (1980) concluded that chicks taken from a declining rock ptarmigan (L. mutus) population were more aggressive when tested in the lab than chicks from an increasing one. If we do assume that behavior and population dynamics are related in a causeand-effect relationship, Chitty's general theory would contend that less aggressive grouse are excluded from the population.
Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2) by Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson