A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications - download pdf or read online

By Jane H. Hill

ISBN-10: 0520246373

ISBN-13: 9780520246379

In a single of the main thorough reviews ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse gains of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological positive factors, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan kin of languages in historic and areal point of view.

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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)

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Hab’ < kwa -s With consonant-final roots the singular imperative adds a glottal stop that metathesizes conspicuously with the root-final consonant in stressed syllables, or is infixed with a vowel copy in an unstressed syllable. 3. Vowel deletion and epenthesis (63) 33 a. pu’ye! ’ b. isa’axw! ’ These forms contrast with vowel-final stems, which have a final glottal stop and an echo vowel, as in (64). (64) a. itu’e! ’ b. kwa’a! ’ Note that the test with habilitatives and imperatives cannot always help us to determine whether a verb stem ends in a consonant or a vowel.

Before the plural suffix, of course, we cannot predict the quality of the vowel as we can with the NPN suffixes, by which consonant appears, since the plural suffix has only one form, -m. The consonant of the preceding non-possessed noun suffix does not determine the vowel, as can be seen in the following examples, where the vowel is always a regardless of the shape of the non-possessed noun suffix. (75) a. b. c. d. isi-ly ‘coyote’, isly-am ‘coyotes’ kika-t ‘householder, dweller’, kikt-am ‘householders’ kawa-l ‘wood rat’, kawl-am ‘wood rats’ akni’i-sh ‘linnet’, akni’ch-am ‘linnets’ 36 Phonology Instead, in this case whether the vowel before plural -m is i or a depends on whether there has been deletion or epenthesis in the noun root.

First, the non-possessed noun suffixes are preceded only by certain vowels in unstressed syllables. The unstressed vowel before -ly is always i. 3. Vowel deletion and epenthesis 35 There are only four exceptions: Kavaly ‘the Kavaly lineage’, with a plural Kavalyim, wisaly ‘mudhen, duck’, plural wisalyim, Kaamalyim ‘Orion’s Belt’, and qawqamaly ‘invalid’. The unstressed vowel before -sh (which often forms deverbal nouns and adjectives) is always i. ’, su’ish ‘jackrabbit’, pi’muk’ish ‘ghost’ (literally, ‘killed by witchery’), $hawish ‘bread’ (literally, ‘baked’) The exceptions are the suffix sequences -lya-’a-sh ‘instrument for’ and -ve’e-sh ‘agentive’.

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A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill

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